Course Schedule and Readings
- Overview of the course
- Proposals and pedagogy
- Funding sources
Bestor, T, J Comaroff, L Garro, G Ryan, S Weller (2007). Guidelines for research proposals in anthropology. In, M Lamont, P White: Workshop on Interdisciplinary Standards for Systematic Qualitative Research (Appendix 3), Workshop report submitted to NSF.
Pzreworski, A., & Salomon, F. (1998). The art of writing proposals. Brooklyn, NY: Social Science Research Council.
Silverman, S. (1991). Writing grant proposals for anthropological research. Current Anthropology, 32(4), 485–489.
Winslow, D. (2007). What makes an NSF proposal successful? Anthropology News, 48(7), 31–31.
Winslow, D. (2008). Writing a dissertation research proposal? Be specific, be clear and proofread! Anthropology News, 49(8), 27.
Winslow, D. (2010). Funding a “healthy mix” of research: Peer review at NSF. Anthropology News, 51(4), 27–27.
Winslow, D. (2010). Cultural anthropology grows at NSF. Anthropology News, 51(2), 29–29.
Winslow, D. (2011). Anthropology without borders. Anthropology News, 52(2), 29–30.
- Language and logic of social science
- Concepts, variables, and measurement
- Validity, reliability, accuracy, and precision
- Causal inference
Due – Research interests
Bernard, Ch. 1-2 (pp. 1-53)
Agar, M. (2006). An ethnography by any other name Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 7(4).
Fanelli, D. (2010). Do pressures to publish increase scientists’ bias? An empirical support from US states data. PLoS ONE, 5(4), e10271.
Lewis, J., DeGusta, D., Meyer, M., & Monge, J. (2011). The mismeasure of science: Stephen Jay Gould versus Samuel George Morton on skulls and bias. PLoS Biology, 9(6), e1001071.
Greenfield, P. M. 2000. What psychology can do for anthropology, or why anthropology took postmodernism on the chin. American Anthropologist 102:564-576.
Aunger, R. 2004. Chapter 1 (p. 1-20) “A crisis in confidence,” Reflexive ethnographic science. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
Bernard, H. R., P. J. Pelto, O. Werner, J. Boster, A. K. Romney, A. Johnson, C. R. Ember, and A. Kasakoff. (1986). The construction of primary data in cultural anthropology. Current Anthropology 27:382-395.
McEwen, W. J. (1963). Forms and problems of validation in social anthropology. Current Anthropology 4:155-183.
- The research cycle
- Types of research questions
- Matching questions and methods
- Literature search strategies
Bernard, Ch. 3 (pp. 54-81)
Gravlee, Clarence C. (2011). “Research design and methods in medical anthropology,” in A companion to medical anthropology. Edited by Merrill Singer and Pamela Erickson, p. 69-91. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Handwerker, W. P. 2001. Chapter 2, “Identify the question,” Quick ethnography. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
Hart, C. 1999. Doing a literature review: Releasing the social science research imagination. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
- Professional ethical codes
- Current controversies
- Working with the IRB
Due – Research question exercise
Fluehr-Lobban, C. 1998. “Ethics,” in Handbook of methods in cultural anthropology. Edited by H. R. Bernard, pp. 173-202. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira.
González, R. J. (2008). “Human terrain” Anthropology Today, Past, present and future applications, 24(1), 21–26.
AAA Commission on the Engagement of Anthropology with the US Security and Intelligence Communities (CEAUSSIC), Executive Summary (2009).
Gregor, T. A., and D. R. Gross. (2004). Guilt by association: The culture of accusation and the American Anthropological Association’s investigation of Darkness in El Dorado. American Anthropologist 106:687-698.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 1979.The Belmont report: Ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research.
Nathan, R. 2005. “An anthropologist goes under cover,” in Chronicle of Higher Education, pp. B11-B13.
AAA Commission on the Engagement of Anthropology with the US Security and Intelligence Communities, Final Report (2007).
Meskell, L., and P. Pels. Editors. (2005). Embedding ethics. New York: Berg Publishers.
Armbruster, H., & Lærke, A. (2008). Taking sides: Ethics, politics and fieldwork in anthropology. New York: Berghahn Books.
- Experimental and nonexperimental research
- Internal validity and causation
- Threats to validity and ways to manage them
Due – problem statement
Bernard, Ch. 4 (pp. 82-112)
Johnson, J. C. (1998). Research design and research strategies. In H. R. Bernard, Ed., Handbook of methods in cultural anthropology (p. 131-171). Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira.
Aunger, R. 2004. Chapter 5 (p. 94-115), “Reflexive realism: A new way of doing ethnography,” Reflexive ethnographic science. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
Fowler, J. H. (2008). The Colbert bump in campaign donations: more truthful than truthy. PS: Political Science & Politics, 41(03).
Campbell, D. T., and J. C. Stanley. (1966). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishing Company.
Brim, J. A., and D. H. Spain. (1974). Research design in anthropology: Paradigms and pragmatics in the testing of hypotheses. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Gil-White, F. (2002). The cognition of ethnicity: native category systems under the field experimental microscope. Field Methods, 14(2), 161–189.
Paluck, E. L. (2010). Is it better not to talk? Group polarization, extended contact, and perspective taking in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36(9), 1170–1185.
- Central limit theorem
- Representativeness and generalizability
- Selecting ethnographic informants
Due – Literature review
Bernard, Ch. 5-7 (p. 113-155)
Handwerker, W. P., and D. F. Wozniak. 1997. Sampling strategies for the collection of cultural data: an extension of Boas’s answer to Galton’s problem. Current Anthropology38:869-875.
Benfer, R. A. 1968. The desirability of small samples for anthropological inference. American Anthropologist 70:949-951.
Johnson, J. C. 1990. Selecting ethnographic informants. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Cohen, J. 1992. A power primer. Psychological Bulletin 112:155-159.
Thomas, D. H. 1986. Chapter 15 (pp. 439-456), “Sampling problems in anthropology” Refiguring anthropology: First principles of probability and statistics. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
- Levels of participation
- Basic skills: informal interviews, observing, recording, managing roles
- Writing and managing fieldnotes
Due – Research setting
Bernard, Ch. 12-13 (pp. 256-305)
Collings, P. (2009). Participant observation and phased assertion as research strategies in the Canadian Arctic. Field Methods, 21(2), 133.
Winchatz, M. R. (2010). Participant observation and the nonnative ethnographer: Implications of positioning on discourse-centered fieldwork. Field Methods, 22(4), 340–356.
Johnson, J., Avenarius, C., & Weatherford, J. (2006). The active participant-observer: Applying social role analysis to participant observation. Field Methods, 18(2), 111.
Becker, H. (1958). Problems of inference and proof in participant observation. American Sociological Review, 23(6), 652–660.
Bourgois, P. (2003). In search of respect: selling crack in El Barrio (Second Edition), Ch. 1 (pp. 19-47). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Dewalt, K. M., & DeWalt, B. R. (2010). Participant observation. A guide for fieldworkers (Second Edition). Lanham, MD: Altamira Press.
Emerson, R., Fretz, R., & Shaw, L. (1995). Writing ethnographic fieldnotes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Spradley, J. (1980). Participant observation. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
- Continuous monitoring
- Time allocation
- Experience sampling
- Behavior trace methods
Bernard, Ch. 14 (pp. 306-336)
Paolisso, M., & Hames, R. (2010). Time diary versus instantaneous sampling: A comparison of two behavioral research methods. Field Methods, 22(4), 357–377.
Wutich, A. (2009). Estimating household water use: A comparison of diary, prompted recall, and free recall methods. Field Methods, 21(1), 49.
Johnson, A., & Sackett, R. (1998). Direct systematic observation of behavior. In H. R. Bernard (Ed.), Handbook of Methods in Cultural Anthropology (pp. 301–331). Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
Graham, M. A. (2003). Adaptation of the weighed food record method to households in the Peruvian Andes and ethnographic insights on hunger. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 15(2), 143–160.
Harvey, S. A., Olortegui, M. P., Leontsini, E., & Winch, P. J. (2008). “They’ll change what they’re doing if they know that you‘re watching”: Measuring reactivity in health behavior because of an observer’s presence—a case from the Peruvian Amazon. Field Methods, 21(1), 3–25.
- Basic skills: interview guides, active listening, probes
- Group interviews
Bernard, Ch. 8 (p. 156-186)
Wutich, A., Lant, T., White, D. D., Larson, K. L., & Gartin, M. (2010). Comparing focus group and individual responses on sensitive topics: A study of water decision makers in a desert city. Field Methods, 22(1), 88–110.
McLellan, E., MacQueen, K., & Neidig, J. (2003). Beyond the qualitative interview: Data preparation and transcription. Field Methods, 15(1), 63–84.
Briggs, C. (2007). Anthropology, interviewing, and communicability in contemporary society. Current Anthropology, 48(4), 551–580.
Gorden, R. (1992). Basic interviewing skills. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
- Questionnaire design
- Cultural domain analysis
- Scale construction
Due – Research plan and methods
Bernard, Ch. 9-11 (p. 187-255)
Weller, S. C., & Romney, A. K. (1988). Systematic data collection. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Weller, S. (1998). Structured interviewing and questionnaire construction. In H. R. Bernard (Ed.), Handbook of Methods in Cultural Anthropology (pp. 365–409). Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
Johnson, J. C., & Weller, S. C. (2002). Elicitiation techniques for interviewing. In J. F. Gubrium & J. A. Holstein (Eds.), Handbook of Interview Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Reyes-Garcia, V., Byron, E., Vadez, V., Godoy, R., Apaza, L., Limache, E., Leonard, W., et al. (2004). Measuring culture as shared knowledge: Do data collection formats matter? Cultural knowledge of plant uses among Tsimane’ Amerindians, Bolivia. Field Methods, 16(2), 135–156.
Kennedy, D. (2005). Scale adaptation and ethnography. Field Methods, 17(4), 412–431.
- Thinking with matrices
- Basic skills: identifying themes, building codebooks and coding
- Traditions of text analysis
Due – Significance
Bernard, Ch. 15 (pp. 337-345) and Ch. 18-19 (pp. 407-457)
Ryan, G., & Bernard, H. (2003). Techniques to identify themes. Field Methods, 15(1), 85–109.
DeCuir-Gunby, J. T., Marshall, P. L., & McCulloch, A. W. (2011). Developing and using a codebook for the analysis of interview data: An example from a professional development research project. Field Methods, 23(2), 136–155.
Wutich, Amber and Clarence C. Gravlee. (2010). Water decision-makers in a desert city: text analysis and environmental social science. In I. Vaccaro, E. A. Smith, S. Aswani (Eds.), Environmental Social Sciences: Methods and Research Design (p. 188-211). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bernard, H. Russell and Gery W. Ryan. 2010. Analyzing qualitative data: Systematic approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Basic skills: data management, descriptive and inferential statistics
- Statistical literacy
Due – Complete draft of proposal
Utts, J. 2003. What educated citizens should know about statistics and probability. The American Statistician 57:74-79.
Handwerker, W. P., and S. P. Borgatti. (1998). Reasoning with numbers. In H. R. Bernard (Ed.), Handbook of Methods in Cultural Anthropology. (p. 549-587). Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira.
Whallon, R. (1987). Simple statistics. In M. Aldenderfer (Ed.), Quantitative research in archaeology: Progress and prospects (pp. 135–150). Sage Publications.
Weller, S. (2007). Cultural consensus theory: Applications and frequently asked questions. Field Methods, 19, 339–368.
Chavez, L., Hubbell, F., McMullin, J., Martinez, R., & Mishra, S. (1995). Structure and meaning in models of breast and cervical cancer risk factors: A comparison of perceptions among Latinas, Anglo Women, and physicians. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 9(1), 40–47.
Bernard, Ch. 20-22 (p. 458-558)
Freedman, D. A. (1991). Statistical models and shoe leather. Sociological Methodology, 21, 291–313. American Sociological Association.
Long, J. S. (2009). The workflow of data analysis using Stata (p. 379). College Station, TX: Stata Press.
Salkind, N. J. (2010). Statistics for people who (think they) hate statistics (Fourth Edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Tufte, E. R. (2001). The visual display of quantitative information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.
- Corey de Souza
- Camee Maddox
- David Markus
- Jessica Jean Casler
Due – peer review
- Marlon Carranza
- Caitlin Baird
- June Carrington
- Erik Timmons
- Yasemin Akdas
- Justin Dunnavant
- Justin Hosbey
- Deborah Andrews
- Stephanie Borios
- Ann Laffey