Franz Boas’s Immigrant Study

Related Publications

Gravlee, Clarence C., H. Russell Bernard, and William R. Leonard 2003. Heredity, environment, and cranial form: a re-analysis of Boas's immigrant data. American Anthropologist 105(1):125-138.

Gravlee, Clarence C., H. Russell Bernard, and William R. Leonard. 2003. Boas’s Changes in Bodily Form: The Immigrant Study, Cranial Plasticity, and Boas’s Physical Anthropology. American Anthropologist 105 (2): 326-32.

Holloway, Ralph L. 2002. Head to Head With Boas: Did He Err on the Plasticity of Head Form? PNAS PNAS 99 (23): 14622-23.

Relethford, John H. 2004. Boas and Beyond: Migration and Craniometric Variation. American Journal of Human Biology 16 (4): 379-86.

Sparks, Corey S., and Richard L. Jantz. 2002. A Reassessment of Human Cranial Plasticity: Boas Revisited. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America PNAS 99 (23): 14636-39.

Sparks, Corey S., and Richard L. Jantz. 2003. Changing Times, Changing Faces: Franz Boas’s Immigrant Study in Modern Perspective. American Anthropologist 105 (2): 333-37.

Selected Publications by Boas

Boas, Franz. 1894. The Correlation of Anatomical Or Physiological Measurements. American Anthropologist 7 313-24.

Boas, Franz. 1899. Some Recent Criticisms of Physical Anthropology. American Anthropologist 1 (1): 98-106.

Boas, Franz. 1899. The Cephalic Index. American Anthropologist 1 (3): 448-61.

Boas, Franz. 1903. Heredity in Head Form. American Anthropologist 5 (3): 530-38.

Boas, Franz. 1907. Heredity in Anthropometric Traits. American Anthropologist 9 (3): 453-69.

Boas, Franz. 1910. Changes in Bodily Form of Descendants of Immigrants. United States Immigration Commission 61st Congress Senate Document No. 208 113.

Boas, Franz. 1911. The Mind of Primitive Man. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Boas, Franz. 1912. Changes in the Bodily Form of Descendants of Immigrants. American Anthropologist n.s. 14 530-62.

Boas, Franz. 1912. Changes in Bodily Form of Descendants of Immigrants. New York: Columbia University Press.

Boas, Franz. 1928. Materials for the Study of Inheritance in Man. Vol. VI, Columbia University Contributions to Anthropology. New York: Columbia University Press.

Boas, Franz. 1936. Effects of Environment on Immigrants and Their Descendants. Science n.s. 84 522-25.

Boas, Franz. 1936. History and Science in Anthropology: A Reply. American Anthropologist 38 137-41.

Boas, Franz. 1940. Race, Language, and Culture. New York: Macmillan.

Boas, Franz. 1940. Changes in Bodily Form of Descendants of Immigrants. American Anthropologist 42 (2, Part 1): 183-89.

Boas, Franz, and Helene M. Boas. 1913. The Head-Forms of the Italians as Influenced By Heredity and Environment. American Anthropologist 15 (2): 163-88.

Media Coverage

Bergstrom, Bill. 2002. Study Challenges Longtime View That Genetics Don’t Shape Skulls. Associated Press.

Holden, Constance. 2002. Going Head-to-Head Over Boas’s Data. Science Science 298 (5595): 942b-943.

Pierpont, Claudia Roth. 2004. The Measure of America: How a Rebel Anthropologist Waged War on Racism. The New Yorker 48-63.

Wade, Nicholas. 2002. A New Look At Old Data May Discredit a Theory on Race. New York Times, October 8, F3.